Author Picture

William Butler Yeats


William Butler Yeats was born in Dublin on June 13, 1865. He was educated in London and Dublin. After completing high school he decided he wanted to be an artist and poet and began attending art school. He left not too long after because he decided to concentrate on his poetry.

Yeats was interested in many kinds of folklore and mythology, and in his early works he often wrote on pagan and Irish themes. On a visit in Ireland, he met Maud Gonne, and actress and Irish nationalist for whom he suffered an unrequited love. However, she inspired much of his early works and because of her he became interested in the Irish movement for independence. In 1922 he became a Senator of the Irish Free State.

It is generally considered that as Yeats grew older his poetry become more refined and perfected, and his later works are acknowledged to be his best. In 1923, Yeats won the Nobel Prize. He died in France in 1939 and was buried in Ireland.

  • A Bronze Head
       HERE at right of the entrance this bronze head,
  • A Coat
       I MADE my song a coat
  • A Cradle Song
       THE angels are stooping
  • A Crazed Girl
       THAT crazed girl improvising her music.
  • A Deep-Sworn Vow
       OTHERS because you did not keep
  • A Dialogue Of Self And Soul
       {My Soul} I summon to the winding ancient stair;
  • A Dream Of Death
       I DREAMED that one had died in a strange place
  • A Drinking Song
       WINE comes in at the mouth
  • A Drunken Man's Praise Of Sobriety
       COME swish around, my pretty punk,
  • A Faery Song
       Sung by the people of Faery over Diarmuid and Grania,
  • A Friend's Illness
       SICKNESS brought me this
  • A Man Young And Old
       THOUGH nurtured like the sailing moon
  • A Meditation In Time Of War
       FOR one throb of the artery,
  • A Memory Of Youth
       THE moments passed as at a play;
  • A Model For The Laureate
       ON thrones from China to Peru
  • A Nativity
       WHAT woman hugs her infant there?
  • A Poet To His Beloved
       I BRING you with reverent hands
  • A Prayer For My Daughter
       ONCE more the storm is howling, and half hid
  • A Prayer For My Son
       BID a strong ghost stand at the head
  • A Prayer For Old Age
       GOD guard me from those thoughts men think
  • A Prayer On Going Into My House
       GOD grant a blessing on this tower and cottage
  • A Song
       I THOUGHT no more was needed
  • A Song From "The Player Queen"
       MY mother dandled me and sang,
  • A Stick Of Incense
       Whence did all that fury come?
  • A Thought From Propertius
       SHE might, so noble from head
  • A Woman homer Sung
       IF any man drew near
  • A Woman Young And Old
       SHE hears me strike the board and say
  • Adam's Curse
       WE sat together at one summer's end,
  • Aedh Wishes for the Clothes of Heaven
       Had I the heavens' embroidered cloths,
  • After Long Silence
       Speech after long silence; it is right,
  • Against Unworthy Praise
       O HEART, be at peace, because
  • All Souls' Night
       MIDNIGHT has come, and the great Christ Church Bell
  • All Things Can Tempt Me
       ALL things can tempt me from this craft of verse:
  • Alternative Song For The Severd head In "The King Of The Great Clock Tower"
       SADDLE and ride, I heard a man say,
  • Among School Children
       I WALK through the long schoolroom questioning;
  • An Acre Of Grass
       PICTURE and book remain,
  • An Appointment
       BEING out of heart with government
  • An Image From A Past Life
       {He.} Never until this night have I been stirred.
  • An Irish Airman Forsees His Death
       I KNOW that I shall meet my fate
  • Anashuya And Vijaya
       O, may tranquillity walk by his elbow
  • Another Song Of A Fool
       This great purple butterfly,
  • Are You Content?
       I CALL on those that call me son,
  • At Aleciras -- A Meditaton Upon Death
       THE heron-billed pale cattle-birds
  • At Galway Races
       THERE where the course is,
  • At The Abbey Theatre
       DEAR Craoibhin Aoibhin, look into our case.
  • Baile And Aillinn
       I HARDLY hear the curlew cry,
  • Beautiful Lofty Things
       BEAUTIFUL lofty things: O'Leary's noble head;
  • Before The World Was Made
       If I make the lashes dark
  • Beggar To Beggar Cried
       "TIME to put off the world and go somewhere
  • Blood And The Moon
       BLESSED be this place,
  • Broken Dreams
       THERE is grey in your hair.
  • Brown Penny
       I WHISPERED, "I am too young,"
  • Byzantium
       THE unpurged images of day recede;
  • Chosen
       The lot of love is chosen. I learnt that much
  • Church And State
       HERE is fresh matter, poet,
  • Colonel Martin
       THE Colonel went out sailing,
  • Colonus' Praise
       {Chorus.} Come praise Colonus' horses, and come praise
  • Come Gather Round Me, Parnellites
       COME gather round me, Parnellites,
  • Consolation
       O but there is wisdom
  • Coole Park And Ballylee, 1931
       I MEDITATE upon a swallow's flight,
  • Coole Park, 1929
       I meditate upon a swallow's flight,
  • Crazy Jane And Jack The Journeyman
       I know, although when looks meet
  • Crazy Jane And The Bishop
       Bring me to the blasted oak
  • Crazy Jane Grown Old Looks At The Dancers
       I found that ivory image there
  • Crazy Jane On God
       That lover of a night
  • Crazy Jane On The Day Of Judgment
       'Love is all
  • Crazy Jane On The Mountain
       I AM tired of cursing the Bishop,
  • Crazy Jane Reproved
       I care not what the sailors say:
  • Crazy Jane Talks With The Bishop
       I met the Bishop on the road
  • Cuchulain Comforted
       A MAN that had six mortal wounds, a man
  • Cuchulan's Fight With The Sea
       A MAN came slowly from the setting sun,
  • Death
       NOR dread nor hope attend
  • Demon And Beast
       FOR certain minutes at the least
  • Down By The Salley Gardens
       DOWN by the salley gardens my love and I did meet;
  • Easter, 1916
       I have met them at close of day
  • Ego Dominus Tuus
       Hic. On the grey sand beside the shallow stream
  • Ephemera
       "YOUR eyes that once were never weary of mine
  • Fallen Majesty
       Although crowds gathered once if she but showed her face,
  • Father And Child
       She hears me strike the board and say
  • Fergus And The Druid
       {Fergus.} This whole day have I followed in the rocks,
  • For Anne Gregory
       "NEVER shall a young man,
  • Form the Green Helmet And Other Poems
       I SWAYED upon the gaudy stem
  • Fragments
       LOCKE sank into a swoon;
  • Friends
       NOW must I these three praise
  • From A Full Moon In March
       UNDER the Great Comedian's tomb the crowd.
  • From The 'Antigone'
       Overcome -- O bitter sweetness,
  • Girl's Song
       I went out alone
  • Gratitude To The Unknown Instructors
       WHAT they undertook to do
  • He Bids His Beloved Be At Peace
       I HEAR the Shadowy Horses, their long manes a-shake,
  • He Gives His Beloved Certain Rhymes
       FASTEN your hair with a golden pin,
  • He Hears The Cry Of The Sedge
       I WANDER by the edge
  • He Mourns For The Change That Has Come Upon Him And His Beloved, And Longs For The End Of The World
       DO you not hear me calling, white deer with no horns?
  • He Rembers Forgotten Beauty
       WHEN my arms wrap you round I press
  • He Reproves The Curlew
       O CURLEW, cry no more in the air,
  • He Tells Of A Valley Full Of Lovers
       I DREAMED that I stood in a valley, and amid sighs,
  • He Tells Of The Perfect Beauty
       O CLOUD-PALE eyelids, dream-dimmed eyes,
  • He Thinks Of His Past Greatness When A Part Of The Constellations Of Heaven
       I HAVE drunk ale from the Country of the Young
  • He Thinks Of Those Who Have Spoken Evil Of His Beloved
       HALF close your eyelids, loosen your hair,
  • He Wishes For The Cloths Of Heaven
       HAD I the heavens' embroidered cloths,
  • He Wishes His Beloved Were Dead
       WERE you but lying cold and dead,
  • Her Praise
       SHE is foremost of those that I would hear praised.
  • High Talk
       PROCESSIONS that lack high stilts have nothing that
  • His Phoenix
       THERE is a queen in China, or maybe it's in Spain,
  • Hound Voice
       BECAUSE we love bare hills and stunted trees
  • Imitated From The Japanese
       A MOST astonishing thing
  • In Memory Of Alfred Pollexfen
       FIVE-AND-TWENTY years have gone
  • In Memory Of Major Rodert Gregory
       NOW that we're almost settled in our house
  • In Tara's Halls
       A MAN I praise that once in Tara's Hals
  • In The Seven Woods
       I HAVE heard the pigeons of the Seven Woods
  • Into The Twilight
       OUT-WORN heart, in a time out-worn,
  • John Kinsella's Lament For Mr. Mary Moore
       A BLOODY and a sudden end,
  • King And No King
       WOULD it were anything but merely voice!'
  • Lapis Lazuli
       I HAVE heard that hysterical women say
  • Leda And The Swan
       A SUDDEN blow: the great wings beating still
  • Lines Written In Dejection
       WHEN have I last looked on
  • Long-Legged Fly
       THAT civilisation may not sink,
  • Maid Quiet
       WHERE has Maid Quiet gone to,
  • Me Peacock
       WHAT'S riches to him
  • Meditations In Time Of Civil War
       SURELY among a rich man s flowering lawns,
  • Memory
       ONE had a lovely face,
  • Men Improve With The Years
       I AM worn out with dreams;
  • Mohini Chatterjee
       I ASKED if I should pray.
  • Narrative And Dramatic The Wanderings Of Oisin
       S. Patrick. You who are bent, and bald, and blind,
  • Never Give All The Heart
       NEVER give all the heart, for love
  • News For The Delphic Oracle
       THERE all the golden codgers lay,
  • Nineteen Hundred And Nineteen
       MANY ingenious lovely things are gone
  • No Second Troy
       WHY should I blame her that she filled my days
  • O Do Not Love Too Long
       SWEETHEART, do not love too long:
  • Oil And Blood
       IN tombs of gold and lapis lazuli
  • Old Memory
       O THOUGHT, fly to her when the end of day
  • On A Picture Of A Black Centaur By Edmund Dulac
       YOUR hooves have stamped at the black margin of the wood,
  • On A Political Prisoner
       SHE that but little patience knew,
  • On Being Asked For A War Poem
       I THINK it better that in times like these
  • On Hearing That The Students Of Our New University Have Joined the Agitation Against Immoral Literature
       WHERE, where but here have pride and Truth,
  • On Those That Hated "The Playboy Of The Western World",
       ONCE, when midnight smote the air,
  • On Woman
       MAY God be praised for woman
  • Owen Aherne And His Dancers
       A STRANGE thing surely that my Heart, when love had come unsought
  • Parnell
       PARNELL came down the road, he said to a cheering man:
  • Paudeen
       INDIGNANT at the fumbling wits, the obscure spite
  • Peace
       AH, that Time could touch a form
  • Politics
       HOW can I, that girl standing there,
  • Presences
       THIS night has been so strange that it seemed
  • Quarrel In Old Age
       WHERE had her sweetness gone?
  • Reconciliation
       SOME may have blamed you that you took away
  • Red Hanrahan's Song About Ireland
       THE old brown thorn-trees break in two high over Cummen Strand,
  • Remorse For Intemperate Speech
       I RANTED to the knave and fool,
  • Responsibilities
       Pardon, old fathers, if you still remain
  • Roger Casement
       I SAY that Roger Casement
  • Running To Paradise
       As I came over Windy Gap
  • Sailing To Byzantium
       That is no country for old men. The young
  • September
       WHAT need you, being come to sense,
  • Shepherd And Goatheard
       Shepherd. That cry's from the first cuckoo of the year.
  • Sixteen Dead Men
       O BUT we talked at large before
  • Slim adolescence that a nymph has stripped,
       Slim adolescence that a nymph has stripped,
  • Solomon And The Witch
       AND thus declared that Arab lady:
  • Solomon To Sheba
       SANG Solomon to Sheba,
  • Spilt Milk
       WE that have done and thought,
  • Statistics
       "THOSE Platonists are a curse,' he said,
  • Stream And Sun At Glendalough
       THROUGH intricate motions ran
  • Supernatural Songs
       BECAUSE you have found me in the pitch-dark night
  • Sweet Dancer
       THE girl goes dancing there
  • Swift's Epitaph
       SWIFT has sailed into his rest;
  • Symbols
       A STORM BEATEN old watch-tower,
  • That The Night Come
       SHE lived in storm and strife,
  • The Apparitions
       BECAUSE there is safety in derision
  • The Arrow
       I THOUGHT of your beauty, and this arrow,
  • The Ballad Of Father Gilliagan
       THE old priest Peter Gilligan
  • The Ballad Of Father O'Hart
       GOOD Father John O'Hart
  • The Ballad Of Moll Magee
       COME round me, little childer;
  • The Ballad Of The Foxhunter
       'Lay me in a cushioned chair;
  • The Balloon Of The Mind
       HANDS, do what you're bid:
  • The Black Tower
       SAY that the men of the old black tower,
  • The Blessed
       CUMHAL called out, bending his head,
  • The Cap And Bells
       THE jester walked in the garden:
  • The Cat And The Moon
       THE cat went here and there
  • The Chambermaid's First Song
       How came this ranger
  • The Chambermaid's Second Song
       From pleasure of the bed,
  • The Choice
       The intellect of man is forced to choose
  • The Circus Animal Desertion
       I SOUGHT a theme and sought for it in vain,
  • The Cloak, The Boat, And The Shoes
       "WHAT do you make so fair and bright?'
  • The Cold Heaven
       SUDDENLY I saw the cold and rook-delighting heaven
  • The Collar-Bone Of A Hare
       WOULD I could cast a sad on the water
  • The Coming Of Wisdom With Time
       THOUGH leaves are many, the root is one;
  • The Countess Cathleen In Paradise
       ALL the heavy days are over;
  • The Crazed Moon
       CRAZED through much child-bearing
  • The Curse Of Cromwell
       YOU ask what -- I have found, and far and wide I go:
  • The Dancer At Cruachan And Cro-Patrick
       I, proclaiming that there is
  • The Dawn
       I WOULD be ignorant as the dawn
  • The Dedication To A Book Of Stories
       THERE was a green branch hung with many a bell
  • The Delphic Oracle Upon Plotinus
       Behold that great Plotinus swim,
  • The Dolls
       A DOLL in the doll-maker's house
  • The Double Vision Of Michael Robartes
       ON the grey rock of Cashel the mind's eye
  • The Everlasting Voices
       O SWEET everlasting Voices, be still;
  • The Falling Of The Leaves
       AUTUMN is over the long leaves that love us,
  • The Fascination Of What's Difficult
       THE fascination of what's difficult
  • The Fiddler Of Dooney
       WHEN I play on my fiddle in Dooney,
  • The Fish
       ALTHOUGH you hide in the ebb and flow
  • The Fisherman
       ALTHOUGH I can see him still.
  • The Folly Of Being Comforted
       ONE that is ever kind said yesterday;
  • The Fool By The RoadSide
       WHEN all works that have
  • The Ghost Of Roger Casement
       O WHAT has made that sudden noise?
  • The Gift Of Harun Al-Rashid
       KUSTA BEN LUKA is my name, I write
  • The Great Day
       HURRAH for revolution and more cannon-shot!
  • The Grey Rock
       Poets with whom I learned my trade.
  • The Gyres
       THE GYRES! the gyres! Old Rocky Face, look forth;
  • The Happy Townland
       THERE'S many a strong farmer
  • The Harp Of Aengus
       Edain came out of Midhir's hill, and lay
  • The Hawk
       "CALL down the hawk from the air;
  • The Heart Of The Woman
       O WHAT to me the little room
  • The Host Of The Air
       O'DRISCOLL drove with a song
  • The Hosting Of The Sidhe
       THE host is riding from Knocknarea
  • The Hour Before Dawn
       A CURSING rogue with a merry face,
  • The Indian To His Love
       THE island dreams under the dawn
  • The Indian Upon God
       I PASSED along the water's edge below the humid trees,
  • The Lady's First Song
       I TURN round
  • The Lady's Second Song
       WHAT sort of man is coming
  • The Lady's Third Song
       WHEN you and my true lover meet
  • The Lake Isle Of Innisfree
       I WILL arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
  • The Lamentation Of The Old Pensioner
       ALTHOUGH I shelter from the rain
  • The Leaders Of The Crowd
       THEY must to keep their certainty accuse
  • The Living Beauty
       I BADE, because the wick and oil are spent
  • The Lover Asks Forgiveness Because Of His Many Moods
       IF this importunate heart trouble your peace
  • The Lover Mourns For The Loss Of Love
       PALE brows, still hands and dim hair,
  • The Lover Pleads With His Friend For Old Friends
       THOUGH you are in your shining days,
  • The Lover Speaks To The Hearers Of His Songs In Coming Days
       O WOMEN, kneeling by your altar-rails long hence,
  • The Lover Tells Of The Rose In His Heart
       ALL things uncomely and broken, all things worn out
  • The Lover's Song
       BIRD sighs for the air,
  • The Madness Of King Goll
       I SAT on cushioned otter-skin:
  • The Magi
       NOW as at all times I can see in the mind's eye,
  • The Man And The Echo
       IN a cleft that's christened Alt
  • The Man Who Dreamed Of Faeryland
       HE stood among a crowd at Dromahair;
  • The Mask
       "PUT off that mask of burning gold
  • The Meditation Of The Old Fisherman
       YOU waves, though you dance by my feet like children
  • The Moods
       TIME drops in decay,
  • The Mother Of God
       THE threefold terror of love; a fallen flare
  • The Mountain Tomb
       POUR wine and dance if manhood still have pride,
  • The Municipal Gallery Revisited
       AROUND me the images of thirty years:
  • The New Faces
       IF you, that have grown old, were the first dead,
  • The Nineteenth Century And After
       THOUGH the great song return no more
  • The O'Rahilly
       SING of the O'Rahilly,
  • The Old Age Of Queen Maeve
       A certain poet in outlandish clothes
  • The Old Men Admiring Themselves In The Water
       I HEARD the old, old men say,
  • The Old Stone Cross
       A STATESMAN is an easy man,
  • The People
       "WHAT have I earned for all that work,' I said,
  • The Phases Of The Moon
       An old man cocked his car upon a bridge;
  • The Pilgrim
       I FASTED for some forty days on bread and buttermilk,
  • The Pity Of Love
       A PITY beyond all telling
  • The Players Ask For A Blessing On The Psalteries And On Themselves
       Three Voices together. Hurry to bless the hands that play,
  • The Poet Pleads With The Elemental Powers
       THE Powers whose name and shape no living creature knows
  • The Ragged Wood
       O HURRY where by water among the trees
  • The Realists
       HOPE that you may understand!
  • The Results Of Thought
       ACQUAINTANCE; companion;
  • The Rose Of Battle
       ROSE of all Roses, Rose of all the World!
  • The Rose Of Peace
       IF Michael, leader of God's host
  • The Rose Of The World
       WHO dreamed that beauty passes like a dream?
  • The Rose Tree
       'O WORDS are lightly spoken,'
  • The Sad Shepherd
       THERE was a man whom Sorrow named his Friend,
  • The Saint And The Hunchback
       Hunchback. Stand up and lift your hand and bless
  • The Scholars
       BALD heads forgetful of their sins,
  • The Second Coming
       TURNING and turning in the widening gyre
  • The Secret Rose
       FAR-OFF, most secret, and inviolate Rose,
  • The Seven Sages
       The First. My great-grandfather spoke to Edmund Burke
  • The Shadowy Waters
       The deck of an ancient ship. At the right of the stage is the mast,
  • The Shadowy Waters
       I walked among the seven woods of Coole:
  • The Song Of The Happy Shepherd
       THE woods of Arcady are dead,
  • The Song Of The Old Mother
       I RISE in the dawn, and I kneel and blow
  • The Song Of Wandering Aengus
       I WENT out to the hazel wood,
  • The Sorrow of Love
       The brawling of a sparrow in the eaves
  • The Sorrow Of Love
       THE brawling of a sparrow in the eaves,
  • The Spirit Medium
       POETRY, music, I have loved, and yet
  • The Spur
       YOU think it horrible that lust and rage
  • The Statesman's Holiday
       I LIVED among great houses,
  • The Statues
       PYTHAGORAS planned it. Why did the people stare?
  • The Stolen Child
       WHERE dips the rocky highland
  • The Three Beggars
       "Though to my feathers in the wet,
  • The Three Bushes
       SAID lady once to lover,
  • The Three Hermits
       THREE old hermits took the air
  • The Three Monuments
       THEY hold their public meetings where
  • The Tower
       THAT is no country for old men. The young
  • The Travail Of Passion
       WHEN the flaming lute-thronged angelic door is wide;
  • The Two Kings
       KING EOCHAID came at sundown to a wood
  • The Two Trees
       BELOVED, gaze in thine own heart,
  • The Unappeasable Host
       THE Danaan children laugh, in cradles of wrought gold,
  • The Valleys Of The Black Pig
       THE dews drop slowly and dreams gather: unknown
  • The Wheel
       THROUGH winter-time we call on spring,
  • The White Birds
       I WOULD that we were, my beloved, white birds on the
  • The Wild Old Wicked Man
       Because I am mad about women
  • The Wild Swans At Coole
       THE trees are in their autumn beauty,
  • The Winding Stair And Other Poems
       THE light of evening, Lissadell,
  • The Witch
       TOIL and grow rich,
  • The Withering Of The Boughs
       I CRIED when the moon was mutmuring to the birds:
  • These Are The Clouds
       THESE are the clouds about the fallen sun,
  • Those Images
       WHAT if I bade you leave
  • Three Marching Songs
       REMEMBER all those renowned generations,
  • Three Movements
       SHAKESPEAREAN fish swam the sea, far away from land;
  • Three Songs To The One Burden
       THE Roaring Tinker if you like,
  • Three Songs To The Same Tune
       GRANDFATHER sang it under the gallows:
  • To A Child Dancing In The Wind
       DANCE there upon the shore;
  • To A Friend Whose Work Has Come To Nothing
       NOW all the truth is out,
  • To A Poet, Who Would Have Me Praise Certain Bad Poets, Imitators Of His And Mine
       YOU say, as I have often given tongue
  • To A Shade
       IF you have revisited the town, thin Shade,
  • To A Squirrel At Kyle-Na No
       COME play with me;
  • To A Wealthy Man Who Promised A Second Subscription To The Dublin Municipal Gallery If It Were Proved The People Wanted Pictures
       YOU gave, but will not give again
  • To A Young Beauty
       DEAR fellow-artist, why so free
  • To A Young Girl
       MY dear, my dear, I know
  • To An Isle In The Water
       SHY one, Shy one,
  • To be Carved On A Stone At Thoor Ballylee
       I, THE poet William Yeats,
  • To Dorothy Wellesley
       STRETCH towards the moonless midnight of the trees,
  • To His Heart, Bidding It Have No Fear
       BE you still, be you still, trembling heart;
  • To Ireland In The Coming Times
       Know, that I would accounted be
  • To Some I Have Talked With By The Fire
       WHILE I wrought out these fitful Danaan rhymes,
  • To Songs Of A Fool
       A SPECKLED cat and a tame hare
  • To The Rose Upon The Rood Of Time
       Red Rose, proud Rose, sad Rose of all my days!
  • Tom O'Roughley
       "THOUGH logic-choppers rule the town,
  • Towards Break Of Day
       WAS it the double of my dream
  • Two Song From A Play
       I SAW a staring virgin stand
  • Two Songs Rewritten For The Tune's Sake
       My Paistin Finn is my sole desire,
  • Two Years Later
       HAS no one said those daring
  • Under Ben Bulben
       SWEAR by what the sages spoke
  • Under Saturn
       DO not because this day I have grown saturnine
  • Under The Moon
       I HAVE no happiness in dreaming of Brycelinde,
  • Under The Round Tower
       "ALTHOUGH I'd lie lapped up in linen
  • Upon A Dying Lady
       WITH the old kindness, the old distinguished grace,
  • Upon A House Shaken By The Land Agitation
       HOW should the world be luckier if this house,
  • Vacilliation
       BETWEEN extremities
  • Veronica's Napkin
       THE Heavenly Circuit; Berenice's Hair;
  • What Then?
       HIS chosen comrades thought at school
  • What Was Lost
       I SING what was lost and dread what was won,
  • When Helen Lived
       WE have cried in our despair
  • When You Are Old
       WHEN you are old and grey and full of sleep,
  • Who Goes With Fergus?
       WHO will go drive with Fergus now,
  • Why Should Not Old Men Be Mad?
       WHY should not old men be mad?
  • Wisdom
       THE true faith discovered was
  • Words
       I HAD this thought a while ago,
  • Words For Music Perhaps
       BRING me to the blasted oak
  • Youth And Age
       MUCH did I rage when young,